Treatment of high blood pressure

Hypertension is a disease of the cardiovascular system that requires treatment

Hypertension (arterial hypertension) is the syndrome of systolic high blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg. Art. and/or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg. Art. Frequent diseases of the cardiovascular system require timely action. Treatment of high blood pressure is prescribed after a comprehensive examination. Therapy includes symptomatic correction and the fight against diseases whose symptoms are elevated blood pressure.

Some statistics

Hypertension occurs in 90-95% of patients with high blood pressure. In other cases, we are talking about secondary symptoms: renal (3-4%), endocrine (0. 1-0. 3%). Less common is high blood pressure in the background of neurological, hemodynamic and stressful situations.

The social significance and danger of high blood pressure in increasing the risk of stroke, heart attack and coronary artery disease, which are considered the main causes of death. If high blood pressure is not controlled, chronic kidney disease develops, leading to kidney failure and disability.

When to treat hypertension

In order to prescribe effective therapy, it is necessary to determine the degree of arterial hypertension. To do this, you need to measure your blood pressure and compare the indicators in the table.

table - Degrees of arterial hypertension
Degree Blood pressure value, mm Hg. Art.
one From 140-159 to 90-99
2 160-179 between 100-109
3 Between 180 and 110

The most common symptoms of high blood pressure that require treatment are:

  • throbbing or pressing headache in the back of the head;
  • dizziness and flashes of dark circles and "flies";
  • palpitations, nausea and tinnitus.

The described clinical picture is typical of the moment of blood pressure rise. In practice, cases of asymptomatic course of the disease are described. If high blood pressure is not controlled, this condition negatively affects the functioning of internal organs. The "target organs" suffer first, such as the kidneys, brain, heart and blood vessels.

The main markers of damage to internal organs in high blood pressure:

  1. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart.
  2. Violation of the diastolic function of the heart muscle.
  3. Chronic heart failure.
  4. progressive atherosclerosis.
  5. Myocardial infarction.
  6. encephalopathy.
  7. Stroke.
  8. Glomerulosclerosis of the kidneys.
  9. Angiopathy of the fundus vessels.

The stages of high blood pressure are determined by the nature of the involvement of the internal organs. The defeat of the "target organs" is not observed in the first stage. The second stage is characterized by single or multiple changes in the absence of AMI (myocardial infarction), chronic urinary tract diseases and stroke. The third stage is characterized by manifestations of chronic kidney disease, stroke and heart attack.

The higher the blood pressure and the more symptoms there are, the greater the risk of vascular accidents. In the case of grade 3 hypertension, the probability of complications is high, regardless of the presence of concomitant symptoms.

Basic rules for treating high blood pressure

The main task is to reduce the risk of complications. To achieve this, negative factors should be minimized and blood pressure should be stabilized as low as possible. The optimal value for most is 140-90 mm Hg. Art. ;for elderly patients - 140-150 at 90-95 mmHg. Art. You have to be careful here, because low blood pressure (hypotension) only increases the risk of vascular accidents.

Treatment of 1 degree hypertension

The tactics of treating arterial hypertension are determined not only by the degree of blood pressure increase, but also by the likelihood of the development of cardiovascular pathologies. Accordingly, in the case of 1 degree of hypertension, it is sufficient to exclude negative factors by changing the lifestyle. In this case, drug therapy is required if the pressure does not stabilize for 2-3 months.

List of corrective measures required for 1 degree hypertension:

  1. Give up bad habits (alcohol, smoking).
  2. Balance your diet - add foods rich in magnesium and potassium to your menu, limit salt (up to 5 g per day), refuse marinades and fried foods.
  3. Don't forget about daily physical activity (running, swimming, walking 30 minutes a day).
  4. It normalizes the body mass index to the optimal level (25 kg/m2).

Treatment of 2 and 3 degree hypertension

Treatment of high blood pressure includes medication, which is prescribed immediately, regardless of the risk of complications. In the case of 3 or more risk factors for the development of cardiovascular complications, medication is mandatory.

Basic drugs for the treatment of arterial hypertension:

  • calcium antagonists. It contributes to the expansion of peripheral blood vessels, reduces the risk of stroke, hypertrophy and blood clot formation. Contraindicated in case of severe heart failure and violation of intracardiac conduction.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Effective agents that improve prognosis in patients with heart failure. Medicines prevent kidney pathologies and left ventricular hypertrophy.

Beta-blockers are prescribed for high blood pressure combined with arrhythmia and coronary artery disease. Therapy with these drugs is recommended for patients with bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, and intracardiac conduction disorders. Less popular drugs are alpha-blockers, imidazoline receptor agonists, and renin inhibitors.

Tactics for treating high blood pressure

If you follow federal guidelines for treating high blood pressure, you should use only one drug if there is a low risk of complications. If single-component drug therapy does not work, only then are funds belonging to other groups added.

Patients with blood pressure between 180 and 100 mmHg. Art. Initially, two-component drug therapy is recommended:

  • adrenoblocker, calcium channel blocker (dihydropyridine) and ACE inhibitor;
  • blocker, diuretic and ACE inhibitor;
  • adrenoblocker, diuretic and aldosterone receptor antagonist.

Many patients, because they have to take a large number of pills a day, stop their high blood pressure medication, which has serious consequences. To solve this not unusual problem, pharmaceutical companies have begun to produce combination drugs that combine two antihypertensive drugs.

In order to increase the effectiveness of drug treatment of high blood pressure, additional drugs are prescribed - antiplatelet agents and statins. You also need tablets that keep the cholesterol level within acceptable limits - 4-5 mmol / l. This approach eliminates the possibility of cardiovascular complications.

Additional therapeutic measures

Drug therapy is often not enough. The treatment of high blood pressure must be approached comprehensively. Only in this case you can count on a quick result that will be stable.

Physiotherapy for high blood pressure

This approach to the treatment of high blood pressure deserves special attention because it is quite effective, especially in combination with drug therapy.

The most successful procedures for physiotherapy for high blood pressure are:

  • Electrosleep. A set of methods for influencing the patient's body using electrical energy. The advantages of the method are the beneficial effect on the central nervous system (CNS), endocrine glands and metabolism. The intense currents not only improve blood circulation, but also reduce the level of bad cholesterol in the blood.
  • Plating. Use of low-frequency current (up to 60-80 V) to stimulate physico-chemical processes in tissues and cells. With the introduction of drugs, the procedure is called drug electrophoresis. To treat high blood pressure, the stroke is performed on the calf muscles, the interscapular region and the collar zone.
  • Balneotherapy. The program includes the Charcot shower, perozone, iodine, bromine baths, etc. The procedures are gentle and recommended only in the early stages of the disease. It has been shown to prevent stroke and heart attack.
  • Magnetotherapy. During the physiotherapy procedure, they come into contact with an alternating magnetic field. It is widely used for arterial hypertension of the 1st and 2nd degree. The current is delivered to the brain through the back of the head, which helps stimulate blood flow and lower heart rate.
  • Diadynamic therapy. The vegetative-correction method exerts a therapeutic effect on the urogenital system and the kidneys, reducing the synthesis of angiotensin (a hormonal substance that constricts blood vessels).

Physiotherapy reduces the dose of drugs, normalizes blood pressure and strengthens blood vessels. The procedures improve the work of the heart and prevent sharp jumps in blood pressure. Sections of the central nervous system are stabilized, which contributes to the normalization of blood pressure. Irritability and nervousness disappear, damaged nerve cells regenerate and high blood pressure stops. Heart and kidney complications are minimized.

Surgical method

In order to eliminate the cause of arterial hypertension, radiofrequency destruction of the renal nerves is prescribed. The purpose of the procedure is to eliminate the autonomic stimulation of the "kidney" mechanisms that increase blood pressure.

An effective surgical treatment of high blood pressure is the stimulation of carotid sinus baroreceptors. This result is achieved by electrical stimulation of the carotid artery. Despite the effectiveness of surgical treatment, there is no information on safety. This method of treating high blood pressure is only recommended for patients who are resistant to the three antihypertensive drugs.


Gymnastics is the most effective for high blood pressure. Thanks to the many years of experience of doctors dealing with patients with high blood pressure, it turned out that any drug therapy is much more effective when combined with dosed physical activity.

The aim of the gymnastic exercises is to reduce the dosage of the drugs in order to exclude the development of side effects. With daily exercise, most patients can get off medication completely.

Neck exercises improve the function of the spine in the treatment of high blood pressure. Regular exercise helps:

  1. elimination of muscle clamps;
  2. better nutrition of the intervertebral discs;
  3. normalization of blood flow in the neck vessels;
  4. restoration of blood circulation in the brain;
  5. creation of metabolic processes that support normal blood pressure;
  6. increases the level of physical activity and, accordingly, the burning of excess calories;
  7. activation of blood vessels by saturating the heart muscle with oxygen.

Remember that only regular gymnastics makes sense. The time and place of the exercises must be determined in advance. During classes, you should be comfortable and comfortable so that no one distracts you and you can concentrate.

The elements of gymnastics for the treatment of high blood pressure:

  1. "Metronome". Alternate fixation of the neck for 10 seconds on the right and left side.
  2. "Heron". The chin is maximally stretched upwards, the arms are lowered. We take the starting position for 1-2 seconds every 10 seconds.
  3. "Spring". Chin tuck and extension with fixation for 5-10 seconds.
  4. "Sadness". Bend the head alternately on one shoulder and then on the other.
  5. "Frame". The left hand is on the right shoulder, the head is turned to the left. Then repeat for the right hand.
  6. "Fakir". The palms are closed above the head so that the fingers point upwards. The head should be turned to the side every 10 seconds.
  7. "Aircraft". The arms are extended to the sides, the elbows are not bent. The arms are lowered to rest every 10 seconds.

Effective exercises to treat high blood pressure

Moderate physical activity trains the central nervous system and strengthens the blood vessels. Vascular tone is quickly normalized, which helps to improve well-being. In case of high blood pressure, only dosed loading is allowed.

Exercise set for hypertensive patients (every element is repeated 5-6 times):

  • Feet shoulder width apart, arms raised. We rise on tiptoe. Slowly lower your hand. Shake the brush, exhale.
  • Hands on the belt, rotate the pelvis in both directions.
  • Light running in place for 1-2 minutes. In order to restore breathing, we switched to walking.
  • Hands on the belt, when inhaling we lean forward, head back, when exhaling we straighten up.
  • Feet shoulder width apart, hands on the belt. When we inhale, we lean forward flexibly, when we exhale, we lean back, bending our head back.

Simple exercises increase the capacity of the respiratory system by improving the elasticity of blood vessels. Harmful products that accumulate in the body are excreted much faster, which reduces the load on the kidneys. The immune system is strengthened and lung ventilation is improved.

Physical activity is contraindicated in patients with blood pressure above 180/120 mmHg. Art. , as well as after a hypertensive crisis. Exercising with the risk of heart attack and stroke is unacceptable. Absolute contraindications are atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal tachycardia, thrombosis, weakness and anginal attacks.

If you experience chest pain, shortness of breath, or heart rhythm disturbances during exercise, you should stop the classes. In this case, you should visit a family doctor, who will diagnose and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.

Treatment of high blood pressure in a sanatorium

Treatment of high blood pressure is a responsible and lengthy process, which only gives results if the doctor's recommendations are followed. Self-medication can lead to the development of serious complications, which pose a threat not only to health, but also to life. All measures must first be approved and approved by a professional.

The sanatoriums have everything necessary for performing diagnostic measures in the line of high blood pressure equipment: electrocardiography, ultrasound. The treatment process is carried out with the following: physiotherapy, balneotherapy, halotherapy.