pressure measurement in case of high blood pressure

Hypertension or arterial hypertension is a condition characterized by a stable, i. e. blood pressure increase detected by repeated measurements. Many diseases are considered a risk factor for the development of dangerous complications from the cardiovascular system, including stroke and heart attack. High blood pressure, as the main cause of the examined pathology, requires taking medication and normalizing the patient's lifestyle and diet.

Everyone has heard complaints about high blood pressure from people around them. According to statistics, high blood pressure is observed in 20-30% of the adult population of the Earth.

This disease is found everywhere and is the main cause of death in many countries. It is important to note that in 90% of cases - this disease is diagnosed independently - as primary arterial or essential hypertension. And it is present only in every tenth patient. This disease develops against the background of diseases of the kidneys, lungs, and endocrine glands.

What is arterial hypertension

A chronic disease that is expressed in a constant or periodic increase in pressure. Doctors in almost all developed countries consider this disease an epidemic of the 21st century. It is detected in every second elderly person in Europe and the USA. Half of the cases are fatal. The rate of occurrence is impressive and alarming. And although there have been major breakthroughs in the treatment of the elderly in recent decades, it remains an insidious and dangerous disease. This is due to the fact that high blood pressure is asymptomatic in its early stages. But the disease causes significant damage to health - it exhausts the cardiovascular system. It is important that people at risk do not neglect prevention and treatment.

Causes and symptoms of high blood pressure

The reasons for the occurrence of pathology are different. Most often, doctors do not find them at all. Especially when it comes to primary hypertension. But the causes of somatic (secondary) arterial hypertension can be determined. It occurs in 10% of patients with high blood pressure. Main reason

  • kidney damage or glomerulonephritis;
  • narrowing of the renal arteries;
  • congenital stenosis of the aorta;
  • increased functioning of the internal glands, especially the thyroid gland;
  • malignant hypertension develops against the background of tumors of the adrenal gland;
  • alcoholism:
  • medicinal - hormonal drugs, antidepressants, etc. is formed during long-term use.

Symptoms of hypertension

Treatment at the initial stage is complicated by the fact that this disease has no specific symptoms. Many patients are unaware of the presence of the disease. They have no complaints about their health, and lead an active lifestyle. Although weakness, dizziness and mild nausea occur from time to time.

Despite the serious consequences, many people do not take this disease seriously, neglecting prevention and treatment. In the early stages, the development of this disease can be stopped. Patients' complaints appear when the "targets" are damaged. These are the organs whose functioning depends on blood pressure. Complications of the disease most often affect the heart and blood vessels.

There are symptoms, although not specific, that raise the suspicion of arterial hypertension. This is weakness, flies before the eyes, numbness of the limbs. All these signs are temporary. But the main symptom is headache.

Grades and stages of hypertension

  • Mild or first - SBP 140-159 / DBP 90-99.
  • Borderline or second - 160-179 / 100-109.
  • Severe or tertiary - 180 and above / 110+.

Select another form of the disease. This is systolic isolated hypertension. Its indicators are SBP above 140 / DBP below 90.

As blood pressure rises, the target organs suffer first. Based on the pathological changes, the disease is divided into stages:

  • 1 - no changes were observed in the target organs.
  • 2 - changes occur in several organs.
  • Clinical conditions associated with stage 3 are recorded.

Risk factors for the development of high blood pressure

  • Circle. This disease is most often diagnosed in women over the age of 65 and in men over the age of 55.
  • Cholesterol exceeds 6. 5 mmol/l.
  • Hereditary diseases of the cardiovascular system are in direct ascending order.
  • Prolonged smoking.
  • The presence of diabetes.
  • High blood pressure develops together with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle.

All risk factors are divided into two groups. Correctable - which can be eliminated. These include diabetes, smoking, cholesterol, obesity. Irreparable - these are those that are not subject to medical influence - bad heredity and age. In this case, in order not to provoke the development of arterial hypertension, it is necessary to follow the recommendations on nutrition and lifestyle.

Hypertension in women

It is different from men. First, there are forms of the disease that are not registered in the strong half of humanity, such as hypertension during menopause and pregnancy. Second, according to statistics, 41% of women have pathology. Therefore, vascular hypertension is more often not a problem for the weak. In the beautiful half, the disease is more difficult. Blood pressure values are usually higher. Although this disease is recorded less often in young women.

Pathology coexists with other diseases and aggravates their course. As a result, a woman has a whole "bunch" of diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, varicose veins, and metabolic disorders. All this complicates the treatment process.

The role of women in society has changed. In addition to housework and child-rearing, the duties that are more characteristic of men rested on her shoulders. More and more women are taking on careers, starting businesses, and sometimes raising families. This results in tension, stress and overload. And this does not lead to better health, it makes it worse. Do not forget that the tendency to high blood pressure is hereditary. Therefore, for those women whose relatives suffer from high blood pressure in a straight ascending line, do not forget about prevention and regular examination.

Finally, high blood pressure in women causes much more trouble. It causes several complications, for example, elderly women often develop a stroke against the background of the disease. The heart also suffers. Women should not neglect treatment and pay more attention to well-being. It is important not to miss the first harbingers of an emerging disease.

Hypertension during pregnancy

It usually becomes apparent in the second trimester. It appears at 20-21 weeks of pregnancy and may disappear after the baby is born. All women with high blood pressure are at risk of placental abruption and preeclampsia. In case of severe high blood pressure in pregnant women, the delivery tactics also change, and a caesarean section may be prescribed.

Methods of treating high blood pressure

This is done with the help of medical preparations. They are able to temporarily eliminate the main symptoms, but the disease is not cured. The goal of almost all treatment methods is to reduce the risk of serious complications such as stroke and heart attack and to improve the patient's quality of life.

Modern treatment is not aimed at reducing the pressure, but at eliminating the cause of the developing pathology. Antihypertensive drugs do not solve this problem. In order to achieve truly tangible results, the treatment is carried out strictly individually, taking into account all the causes of the development of the disease. The etiology of hypertension can be related to the dysfunction of the liver and bile ducts. Then acupressure will be effective in the treatment. In other cases, high blood pressure is associated with impaired kidney function. It often develops against the background of obesity. The patient is then prescribed a diet for weight correction and various methods of physiotherapy.

Medicines to treat high blood pressure

Traditional treatment is done with medicines. Continuous monitoring of blood pressure is necessary. It should be in stable condition. For this, drug groups are used. Their effect is based on different mechanisms of action, but all of them help to reduce pressure.

  • potassium antagonists. They block the calcium channels in the vessel wall as the gaps grow.
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. These drugs used to treat high blood pressure block the synthesis of renin, which has the direct effect of raising blood pressure.
  • B-blockers. These high blood pressure pills lower your heart rate.
  • Diuretics. These are diuretics. They help reduce fluid in the body, which lowers blood pressure.

It is important to understand that it is strictly forbidden to take even new medicines without consulting a doctor. Self-medication is dangerous and ineffective. Only a cardiologist can choose the right remedy.

Diet for high blood pressure

Pathologists recommend changing your diet. One of the tasks of treating the disease is to normalize body weight and metabolic processes. For this, a number of strict requirements must be met. First, reduce your salt intake. Its main ingredient, sodium, prevents the removal of water from the body. This increases blood volume, which increases blood pressure. Second, they reject green and black tea. You don't even have to drink coffee. These products cause vasospasm and increase the workload on the heart. Try to avoid fatty foods. Eliminate butter and sausage from your diet.

It is better to choose products of plant origin. Eat more vegetables. They are rich in fiber, which helps lower blood cholesterol levels. Dried apricots, carrots, cabbage and beets increase the amount of important minerals in the body such as magnesium and potassium. These substances strengthen the walls of blood vessels and heart muscles. Food should be fractional. Divide the daily dose into 5 equal parts. Breaks between meals are a maximum of 3 hours.

Finally, lifestyle is important in high blood pressure. Quit alcohol and smoking. Eliminate all ready meals and fast food from your diet. Do not starve! In case of high blood pressure, a strict diet is not allowed, stress is contraindicated for the body.

Treatment with folk remedies

The positive side of such drugs is that they have been tested by time and more than one generation. Phytotherapy is a great help in healing. They use sedative herbs that have a calming effect on the body. This group of plants includes hawthorn, chamomile, valerian, lemongrass, and mint. Lemon, honey, and rosehips also help lower blood pressure. Green tea helps a lot. Some recipes that help treat high blood pressure:

  1. Mix honey with lemon and carrot juice (1: 1 liquid ratio). Mix well and drink a third of a glass one hour after a meal.
  2. Among the herbs, hawthorn is especially helpful. The tincture should be taken 10 drops daily in the morning.
  3. Lowers blood pressure well - cranberry. It is enough to eat a glass of this berry in the morning.
  4. Steam lemongrass, mint and valerian in equal amounts in a water bath. Drink half a glass of this infusion five times a day. It has a calming and relaxing effect.

Diabetes and high blood pressure

Pathologies are interrelated. They have a mutually reinforcing effect, the purpose of which is to disrupt the functioning of several target organs at the same time. Tests for high blood pressure aggravated by diabetes mellitus often indicate damage to the vessels of the brain and the retina of the eyes, heart and kidneys. In this scenario of disease development, the main causes of death are often coronary heart disease, heart attack and kidney failure.

Early detection of high blood pressure is important for diabetes. This allows you to prescribe appropriate treatment and prevent serious complications from the kidneys and cardiovascular system.

Prevention of high blood pressure

It is suitable for those who have blood relatives with this disease, especially in the direct line (mother, father, grandmother, grandfather). After 30 years, regular examinations should be carried out, even if there are no obvious signs of the development of the disease. For people at risk, alcohol and smoking are contraindicated. They must follow a diet low in salt and fat. Exercise is important for prevention. You can jog, walk, cycle. You should avoid shocks and stress and lead a moderate lifestyle.